Nuremberg Trials 2.0

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Please post any pertinent information on the ongoing crimes against humanity being perpetrated by bureaucrats, medical professionals, hospitals, and corporations. 

The more information (evidence) of the ongoing crimes against humanity committed under the guise of a global pandemic the more likely there will be justice. At a certain point the evidence will be overwhelming and undeniable. I have already seen enough. 

IntroductionThe judgment by the war crimes tribunal at Nuremberg laid down 10 standards to which physicians must conform when carrying out experiments on human subjects in a new code that is now accepted worldwide.This judgment established a new standard of ethical medical behaviour for the post World War II human rights era. Amongst other requirements, this document enunciates the requirement of voluntary informed consent of the human subject. The principle of voluntary informed consent protects the right of the individual to control his own body.This code also recognizes that the risk must be weighed against the expected benefit, and that unnecessary pain and suffering must be avoided. This code recognizes that doctors should avoid actions that injure human patients. The principles established by this code for medical practice now have been extended into general codes of medical ethics.The Nuremberg Code (1947)Permissible Medical ExperimentsThe great weight of the evidence before us to effect that certain types of medical experiments on human beings, when kept within reasonably well-defined bounds, conform to the ethics of the medical profession generally. The protagonists of the practice of human experimentation justify their views on the basis that such experiments yield results for the good of society that are unprocurable by other methods or means of study. All agree, however, that certain basic principles must be observed in order to satisfy moral, ethical and legal concepts:

1. The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential. Thismeans that the person involved should have legal capacity to give consent;should be so situated as to be able to exercise free power of choice, withoutthe intervention of any element of force, fraud, deceit, duress, overreaching,or other ulterior form of constraint or coercion; and should have sufficientknowledge and comprehension of the elements of the subject matter involvedas to enable him to make an understanding and enlightened decision. Thislatter element requires that before the acceptance of an affirmative decisionby the experimental subject there should be made known to him the nature,duration, and purpose of the experiment; the method and means by which it isto be conducted; all inconveniences and hazards reasonably to be expected;and the effects upon his health or person which may possibly come from hisparticipation in the experiment.The duty and responsibility for ascertaining the quality of the consent restsupon each individual who initiates, directs, or engages in the experiment. It is a personal duty and responsibility which may not be delegated to another withimpunity.

2. The experiment should be such as to yield fruitful results for the good ofsociety, unprocurable by other methods or means of study, and not randomand unnecessary in nature.

3. The experiment should be so designed and based on the results of animalexperimentation and a knowledge of the natural history of the disease or otherproblem under study that the anticipated results justify the performance of theexperiment.

4. The experiment should be so conducted as to avoid all unnecessary physicaland mental suffering and injury.

5. No experiment should be conducted where there is an a priori reason tobelieve that death or disabling injury will occur; except, perhaps, in thoseexperiments where the experimental physicians also serve as subjects.

6. The degree of risk to be taken should never exceed that determined by thehumanitarian importance of the problem to be solved by the experiment.

7. Proper preparations should be made and adequate facilities provided toprotect the experimental subject against even remote possibilities of injury,disability or death.

8. The experiment should be conducted only by scientifically qualified persons.The highest degree of skill and care should be required through all stages ofthe experiment of those who conduct or engage in the experiment.

9. During the course of the experiment the human subject should be at liberty tobring the experiment to an end if he has reached the physical or mental statewhere continuation of the experiment seems to him to be impossible.

10.During the course of the experiment the scientist in charge must be preparedto terminate the experiment at any stage, if he has probable cause to believe,in the exercise of the good faith, superior skill and careful judgment requiredof him, that a continuation of the experiment is likely to result in injury,disability, or death to the experimental subject.

For more information see Nuremberg Doctor's Trial, BMJ 1996;313(7070):1445-75.

 

The Hippocratic Oath is usually recited in a modernized version. The most widely used text is the following:

"I swear to fulfill, to the best of my ability and judgment, this covenant:

"I will respect the hard-won scientific gains of those physicians in whose steps I walk, and gladly share such knowledge as is mine with those who are to follow.

"I will apply, for the benefit of the sick, all measures that are required, avoiding those twin traps of overtreatment and therapeutic nihilism.

"I will remember that there is art to medicine as well as science, and that warmth, sympathy, and understanding may outweigh the surgeon's knife or the chemist's drug.

"I will not be ashamed to say 'I know not,' nor will I fail to call in my colleagues when the skills of another are needed for a patient's recovery.

"I will respect the privacy of my patients, for their problems are not disclosed to me that the world may know. Most especially must I tread with care in matters of life and death. If it is given me to save a life, all thanks. But it may also be within my power to take a life; this awesome responsibility must be faced with great humbleness and awareness of my own frailty. Above all, I must not play at God.

"I will remember that I do not treat a fever chart, a cancerous growth, but a sick human being, whose illness may affect the person's family and economic stability. My responsibility includes these related problems, if I am to care adequately for the sick.

"I will prevent disease whenever I can, for prevention is preferable to cure.

"I will remember that I remain a member of society, with special obligations to all my fellow human beings, those sound of mind and body as well as the infirm.

"If I do not violate this oath, may I enjoy life and art, respected while I live and remembered with affection thereafter. May I always act so as to preserve the finest traditions of my calling and may I long experience the joy of healing those who seek my help."

Other versions

In addition to the Hippocratic Oath, there are several other doctors' oaths that are used occasionally, to present the same values in various religious or political contexts. However, all these oaths share an overriding concern for the welfare of the patient and a determination that the knowledge of medicine should never be used to do harm.

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